Myopia (nearsightedness) – an eye disease that manifests impaired when viewing objects in the far distance.When viewing located at close distance – vision is not impaired.
Is divided into three degrees of myopia: weak – up to 3.0 diopters, average – 6.0 diopters, high – more than 6.0 diopters.
Adrift distinguish progressive and non-progressive myopia, when the vision continues to deteriorate.
Progressive myopia – is an eye disease in which the lens power should be increased annually by more than 1 diopter. Progressive myopia can cause serious complications that require further surgery. Also the progression of myopia may develop slowly and end with the completion of growth of the organism. Sometimes myopia progresses continuously achieves a high degree (up to 30.0-40.0 diopters), accompanied by a number of complications and a significant decrease in vision. This is called myopia zlakachestvennoy – myopic disease.
Non-progressive myopia is evident in view of the distance, lends itself well to remedial and requires no treatment.Favorably flows and temporarily progressive myopia. Is constantly and rapidly progressing myopia – always a serious disease, the main cause complete loss of vision associated with pathological abnormalities in the structure of the eye.
From a medical perspective physics myopia can be explained as short-sighted people image distant objects are focused not on the retina, as it occurs in healthy people and in front of her, so objects at a distance one sees blurry and fuzzy. This is due to stretching of the back of the eyeball, which leads to the anatomical and physiological changes. Particularly bad effect on vision disorders and vascular mesh shells. It is these structures undergo corrective eye procedures in the treatment of myopia in the first place.
Causes of myopia
1. Heredity. Scientists have proved that there is a link between myopia in parents and their children. If both parents myopia, the risk of developing such disease in children under the age of 18 years is approximately 50%. If neither the mother nor the pope with vision problems are not present, the risk of developing myopia in their child is only 10%.
2. Constant visual load, which are often exposed to the organs of sight. Myopia most often develops in the school and college years, when the eyes are exposed to the maximum load.
3. Malnutrition. Myopia can occur due to lack of vitamins in the human diet and the elements that contribute to the synthesis of tissue membrane of the eye, and participate in svetovospriyatii.
4. When circulatory disorders eyes it is likely that over time will develop myopia.
5. Improper vision correction. Picking up glasses and contact lenses for the first time is very important that all the rules have been complied with and that the correction was eliminated false myopia. In order to not develop progressive myopia, should comply with the rules and recommendations on wearing lenses and glasses and vision checked regularly.
Heredity, nevertheless, is the leading factor in the formation of myopia, other factors only provoke myopia with existing predisposition to it, especially in the adult. But the formation of the child and adolescent affect all these factors.
Symptoms of myopia
A long time may develop myopia asymptomatic. Myopia usually detected during medical examinations in adults or medical examinations of children in schools and kindergartens, before a person can not even aware of his illness.Manifested myopia poor distance vision. At school, a child asks the front desk transplant, people do not see numbers taxis, price tags in stores, it becomes uncomfortable to watch TV.
There is such a thing as a false myopia. It is associated with spasm of accommodation – malfunction special eye ciliary muscle, and manifests a clear violation of the distance. Diagnosis after survey, when special preparations dripping eyes and widen the pupil.
Diagnosis of myopia
The diagnosis is established only myopia ophthalmologist after a careful and thorough examination. Conducted pre-examination of the patient, the eyes are exposed to a number of special studies (biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, visual acuity, fundus examination, etc.). Only after all of these activities can say yes or no myopia. If any violation of it should seek medical attention as any consultation at the pharmacy are not sufficient for an accurate diagnosis and treatment. Simply purchase a pair does not mean cure nearsightedness. This vision correction and are often not quite at the right level.
Myopia in children and during pregnancy
Myopia in children mainly fixed hereditary. Children whose parents wear glasses, the probability of myopia also highest. Also has value as a child years.
Up to one year of myopia in children mainly occurs very rarely. Do preschoolers eye grows, its structure is strengthened, at this time the likelihood of developing the disease is reduced. But at the age of 11-13 years have the disease occurs more frequently.
This is due to the fact that the load on the eye increases, and preventive measures are not met. Negatively on the health of the child’s eyes reflected long watching TV and stay for a computer monitor.
Treatment of myopia in children should begin as soon as possible. But when the child is very small, he can not complain about the eyes as myopia causes no pain. Therefore, parents should be very careful and pay attention to whether the child has symptoms of myopia. The symptoms of myopia include squinting manifestations, low inclination of the head when drawing or reading, the inability to recognize objects in the far distance. Therefore it is necessary to pass examinations by an ophthalmologist even without complaints from the baby.
When pregnancy myopia creates additional conditions for the path of delivery. High myopia, accompanied by the initial destruction of the retina, is an occasion to obstetrician, following the recommendations of an ophthalmologist, and given the size of the pelvis, the size of the fetus and the other parameters, deciding the question concerning possible cesarean delivery. Nevertheless myopia and childbirth – is quite compatible things.Pregnant women who have been identified weak myopia recommended watch less TV and sit at the computer, and often walk in the fresh air and to eat foods that are good for the eyes (nuts, carrots, blueberries) and do preventive exercises.
Correction and treatment of myopia
Treatment of mild myopia conducted following ways: correction using glasses selection, treatment and operative (surgical) intervention. As you know, in a period of rapid growth of the organism rather myopia progresses, so it is necessary to carry out treatment in childhood and adolescence. As a general rule, to stop further development of myopia recommended full correction (selection of glasses on diopters) equal degrees of myopia. Wearing special glasses can be changeable, and only when necessary.
Currently, surgical treatment of myopia has become widespread and is constantly strengthening stretch back of the eye, as well as a decrease in refractive power of the eye.
As medical event with mild myopia worth using special exercises aimed at training the ciliary muscle. Sparing regimen in this case is not required, since the obvious complications in the form of retinal detachment complicated cataract development or not.
Useful lessons sports games, in which time constantly having to switch attention (volleyball, basketball, and tennis). Fast and frequent change of look up close to distant trains visual apparatus, and it is also the prevention of further progression of myopia.